19. Which of the following statements are TRUE?I. There exist parsing algorithms for some programming languages whose complexities are less than O(n^3).II. A programming language which allows recursion can be implemented with static storage allocation.III. No L-attributed definition can be evaluated in The framework of bottom-up parsing.IV. Code improving transformations can be performed at both source language and intermediate code level.

20. Match all items in Group 1 with correct options from those given in Group 2.Group 1 Group 2P. Regular expression 1. Syntax analysisQ. Pushdown automata 2. Code generationR. Dataflow analysis 3. Lexical analysisS. Register allocation 4. Code optimization

21. Multiplication of a positive integer by a power of two can be replaced by left shift, which executes faster on most machines, this is an example of?

22. Consider the following two sets of LR(1) items of an LR(1) grammar. X -> c.X, c/d X -> .cX, c/d X -> .d, c/d X -> c.X, $ X -> .cX, $ X -> .d, $Which of the following statements related to merging of the two sets in the corresponding LALR parser is/are FALSE?1. Cannot be merged since look aheads are different.2. Can be merged but will result in S-R conflict.3. Can be merged but will result in R-R conflict.4. Cannot be merged since goto on c will lead to two different sets.

23. What is the maximum number of reduce moves that can be taken by a bottom-up parser for a grammar with no epsilon- and unit-production (i.e., of type A -> є and A -> a) to parse a string with n tokens?

26. We have two statements S1 and S2 whose definition are as follows:S1 – {02n In ≥ I} is a regular language.S2 – {0m 1n 0 1m+n I m=1 and n≥1I is a regular language.

37. If state In contains A⟶α⋅A\longrightarrow\alpha\cdotA⟶α⋅ and B→α.βB\rightarrow\alpha.\betaB→α.β then it will lead to ...............conflict in LR parser

39. Consider the grammar defined by the following production rules: S --> T * P T --> U | T * U P --> Q + P | Q Q --> Id U --> IdWhich one of the following is TRUE?

+ is left associative, while ∗ is right associative

+ is right associative, while ∗ is left associative

Both + and ∗ are right associative

Both + and ∗ are left associative

40. Consider the following two sets of LR (1) items of an LR (1) grammar. X -> c.X, c/d X -> .cX, c/d X -> .d, c/d X -> c.X, $ X -> .cX, $ X -> .d, $Which one is true?1. Cannot be merged since look ahead’s are different.2. Can be merged but will result in S-R conflict.3. Can be merged but will result in R-R conflict.4. Cannot be merged since goto on c will lead to two different sets.

50. Consider the grammar defined by the following production rules, with two operators ∗ and + S --> T * P T --> U | T * U P --> Q + P | Q Q --> Id U --> IdWhich one of the following is TRUE?